(Σπάρτα in ancient Greek) is one of the most famous of ancient greek city-states. They were a very very war-like society. Everything they did was for war. They were the first greek city to have a permenint army.
Sparta is ruled by two warrior-kings, both are always thought to be a decendant of Hercules. Some of which actually were. The duty of the kings are war, religon and law. For Crimes against the state or other more political aspects a group of elders called Gerousia are incharge of those matters. It is a group of 28 elders, all over the age of 60 and elected for life.
Any person with Spartan heritage can be a citizen. They must go through they're training to be eligible. But It is known for foriegn boys to be invited for training, people like this are called Trophimoi or "foster sons". There are free inhabitants who are not citizens.
Spartan slaves called Helots. They run everything in the city. They farm food, build weapons and do about everything to provide for the citizens.
Birth and DeathEdit
When a spartan male is born they are bathed in wine instead of water. If the baby survives a member of the Gerousia examines the boy to see if his is weak and cannot live in this society or strong and will serve the state.
The only people who could have their names on their grave were men who died in battle and woman who died in childbirth.
When a boy turned 7 he was taken from his mother and put into the Agoge. The Agogoe turns young boys into the greatest warriors the world has ever known. The never stop training throughout they're childhood. As young boys they are trained not to cry, to hide pain. They were not fed enough food so were forced to steel.
An event that they often did was they were flogged in groups until they blead. the person who stood the longest was treated with great respect.
As they go older the training becomes more and more brutal. In their early teens they then learn how to use weapons. All too often some boys died in the training.
Their final test is what the called "becoming a man". In Sparta every boy must sneak out of their barracks and murder a slave without being caught. At age 18 they join the army. However they then spend the next 2 years living in the countryside with nothing but a knife.
Girls had schooling too, which was rare in ancient Greece.
At age twenty the were taken from the reserves and put into the full army. They remain in the army until they are 60. Like all Greek city-states they used Phalanx warfare. However the Spartans had become masters of it.
All men were put into groups of 15 others called syssitia. These groups lived together, ate together and fought together. At age 30 they were made a full citizen. They could then live with their families if they had one.
Spartan men were required to marry at the age of 20. The husband would visit his wife in secret until he became a full citizen. They would then live together, usually.
Unlike other places around the world, spartan woman were treated with high respect and fairness. They could own land and get a real education. The rarely married before the age of 20. Unlike woman in Athens who preferred to hide from the public. Spartan woman went where they please and wore what they wanted.
Spartan woman were famous to be as strong as the men. If a man tried to forcefully take a wife. The woman can often fight him off.
When a man goes to battle his wife or other important female such as his mother or even a sister would give him his shield and say: Ἢ τὰν ἢ ἐπὶ τᾶς, Èi tàn èi èpì tàs. Which means "with this shield or on it". This means either the man wins the battle and returns with his shield or has died and is carried on it.